Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925 (Indian Ocean Series)
Bang ISBNbestellen. Anne Bang focuses on the ways in which a particular Islamic brotherhood, or ' tariqa', the tariqa Alawiyya, spread. Bang Limited preview -.
Sufis and Scholars of the Sea
Avhandling : Sufis and Scholars of the Sea. Authority and piety, writing and print: a preliminary study of the circulation of islamic texts in late nineteenth- and early twentieth- century zanzibar - volume 81 issue 1 - anne k.
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Anne Bang May 30,. Be the first to review this item. London : Heinemann. Imprint Routledge. Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - lehmanns. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Sufis and scholars of the sea family networks in east africa It was founded in together with the formation of the state of Perlis, after the Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin II gave his endorsement to the Jamalullail family for the secession of Perlis from Kedah with the Jamalullail family as its hereditary rulers.
Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Chesworth, John A. Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: family networks in East Africa, — Anne Bang focuses on. Anne Bang focuses on the ways in which a particular Islamic brotherhood, or ' tariqa', the tariqa Alawiyya, spread, maintained and propagated their particular brand of the Islamic faith.
It deserves attention for its original approach, and for the wealth of previously unpublished information. Sufis and Scholars of the Sea by Bang, Anne. As Swahili civilization extended southward, Lamu, Pate, Mombasa and Kilwa all became virtual city-states, usually ruled by a family claiming Arab descent. The Ethiopian city of Harar was the only major Islamic center that was inland.
Until the thirteenth century, Muslims in the northern trading centers lived under the rule of pagans and the Christian kings of Abyssinia, who did not allow them complete freedom of religion. At Kilwa, on the Tanganyikan coast, Muslim-style tombs and stone mosques first appeared in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
The only other pre-fourteenth-century stone mosque is in Mogadishu, where two mosques bear thirteenth-century dates. Scholars conclude that actual groups of Muslims on the Swahili coast south of Somalia were scarce before Pouwels a: From the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries, Islam gradually expanded through trade, particularly from north to south. Many stone towns appeared during this period along the Swahili coast, including Lamu, Gedo, Mombasa, Malindi, and others.
Islam did not enjoy a comparable spread among rural populations in countries south of Somalia until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Much of the history of Islam in Ethiopia is marked by struggle and warfare between Muslim principalities and the Christian kingdom of Axum. In the late seventeenth century, Emperor Yohannes I ordered Muslims to live separately from Christians in villages and town quarters of their own. Christians could not eat with Muslims, drink from cups they had used, or eat meat they had slaughtered.
Vasco da Gama visited Kilwa in , and within a few years the Portuguese had captured and destroyed both Kilwa and Mombasa, the two greatest Shirazi cities.
With the exception of Goa on the west coast of India and Mozambique on the southeastern coast of Africa, the Portuguese did not acquire large colonies, but they did seize small territories throughout the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf where they built forts and garrisons, including Fort Jesus at Mombasa. They were the strongest naval power in the region throughout the sixteenth century, and directly contributed to the decline of Shirazi civilization, as the coastal towns depended on the Indian Ocean trade for their survival.
The decline of Shirazi civilization was hastened by population movements in East Africa; Shirazi towns were frequently attacked by African groups moving into their hinterland. In the seventeenth century a new dynasty in Oman challenged Portuguese supremacy in the Indian Ocean. Omani immigrants living in Mombasa requested assistance against the Portuguese, so he sent a fleet that attacked and burned Portuguese positions in Mombasa, Pate, Zanzibar and Mozambique, leading to a general revolt against the Portuguese in all the coastal towns.
Once he left, however, the Portuguese recaptured Mombasa and severely punished its inhabitants. The Portuguese recaptured Mombasa in , but the Omanis took it back in The Portuguese harassed Omani merchants and closed their Indian ports to them.
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Only Zanzibar remained loyal to the new Omani sovereign. The rebellion was weakened by rivalry between the two families. From to , Zanzibar was the capital of a vast empire that included Oman and the Swahili coast from Mogadishu in Somalia to twelve miles south of the Rovuma River in northern Mozambique. By the early nineteenth century, Muslim traders from the coast, usually with the financial backing of Indian merchants, were taking caravans into the interior to obtain ivory and slaves for export.
Towns began to appear along these inland trade routes, from which Islam gradually spread into the interior. The development of plantation agriculture on the Swahili coast in the nineteenth century caused the pace of the slave trade to increase dramatically, accompanied by warfare and convulsive population displacements throughout the interior.
It is also noteworthy that two of the most important scholars of Zanzibar in the nineteenth century were from the southern Somali town of Brava. From that point on, British interference in Omani affairs was very significant. Barghash was exiled to Bombay, where he underwent an apparent change of heart. During his reign, steamship, cable, and the opening of the Suez Canal brought East Africa into closer connection with the outside world. Barghash made a state visit to England in , and also visited Paris and Berlin before returning to East Africa.
Only Ethiopia, under Menelik II, surprised the Western world by defeating Italy in the battle of Adowa in ; Ethiopia remained independent, except for a brief period —41 when it was incorporated into the domains of Italian East Africa. In the British established a protectorate over Zanzibar. Trimingham believed that Islamization increased dramatically during the colonial period because European power and the suppression of the slave trade brought increased security, allowing Muslim traders greater access to the interior.
Others did not attain independence until the s: the Comoros and Mozambique in , the latter only after ten years of sporadic warfare, Djibouti in The post-independence history of this region has been marked by many military coups and wars — both civil wars and interstate wars like the Ogaden conflict between Ethiopia and Somalia.
Some of these conflicts are a direct legacy of the arbitrary division of Africa into European spheres of interest in the nineteenth century, while others are the result of government corruption and communist revolutions. Only the most important of these will be described here. In Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Mariam led a military coup that deposed Emperor Haile Selassie in and established a one-party communist state.
The ensuing years brought a series of military coups, war with Somalia over the Ogaden province, which the British had given to Ethiopia, severe drought, and displacement of hundreds of thousands of people. Many civilians were deliberately starved by the regime to force them into submission. In , after a thirty-year war for independence, Eritrea seceded from Ethiopia. Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland joined to form the independent republic of Somalia in , except for Ogaden, which was made part of Ethiopia. Violence has plagued much of Somalia, especially the capital, Mogadishu, since Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown in Although the United Nations recognizes a Transitional National Government, its power is extremely limited.
The northern provinces, known as Somaliland and Puntland, are virtually autonomous.
Sufis and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, by Anne Bang
Uganda became an independent nation in In Milton Obote overthrew the constitution and declared himself president. He in turn was overthrown in by Idi Amin, whose rule was marked by ruthless killings that claimed an estimated , lives, the expulsion of the Indian population, and the collapse of the economy. He was finally ousted by a Tanzanian force aided by Ugandan exiles.
Uganda suffered subsequent coups, civil war, and the abduction of children by militias who force them into military service, but it is nonetheless relatively stable and is a major contributor of soldiers to African peacekeeping forces in the region. Kenya attracted the most British and European settlement in the region, with consequent displacement of the indigenous population, leading to the famous Mau Mau rebellion of the s. Kenya gained independence in December Although its politics have been authoritarian and sometimes marked by violence, there have been no successful coup attempts, and the government is a parliamentary democracy.
The election in of an opposition candidate to the presidency, Mwai Kibaki, was heralded as a triumph of democracy. Tanganyika attained full independence from Great Britain in December under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, who established a system of socialist villages throughout the country.
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Indians did not have the same political power or social prestige, but they had become the wealthiest segment of society, owning most of the land and businesses. The black African majority was clearly disadvantaged in every way. The leaders of the revolution encouraged black Africans to attack non-blacks; a horrific massacre ensued, in which some ten thousand unarmed civilians were murdered.
Thousands of Arabs and Indians fled Zanzibar at this time. Homes were invaded, and people of lighter skin were selected for extermination, often in a hideous fashion, so that no body could remain for burial. Okello allegedly bragged that he personally killed more than 8, people.
Sufis and scholars of the sea family networks in east africa 1860 1925
Once the revolution was over, Okello went abroad, and his co-conspirators prohibited him from returning to Zanzibar. He was last seen in Uganda in with Idi Amin, and it is speculated that Amin ordered his assassination, though nothing is known of what happened to him. Zanzibar joined with Tanganyika in April to form the Republic of Tanzania, although it has its own president and retains some autonomy. Mozambique attained independence in after ten years of sporadic warfare against the Portuguese colonial regime. After independence it was plagued by civil war and attacks by the neighboring white-dominated regimes of Rhodesia and South Africa.
The civil war ended in , and was followed by a massive resettlement of refugees. In the coastal towns many Muslims assiduously observe their religious obligations. The poem then traces the transmission of this light from person to person until the conception of the Prophet, whose gestation is marked by miraculous occurrences. Groups of children also recite it on other important occasions, like weddings. They also introduced the use of Latin letters for writing Swahili, which was formerly written in the Arabic script.
The orders attracted new converts to Islam, facilitated their integration into Muslim society, and met material, social and spiritual needs Nimtz Throughout the Muslim world it is believed that saints — men or women who work miracles and are favored by God — intercede with God on behalf of ordinary believers, and are even more powerful after death than in life. Their tombs become places of pilgrimage, and their help is sought by women who wish to bear children, by those who wish healing or justice, or just for the sake of receiving some of their baraka — their spiritual power or blessing.
They often make vows, promising that if the saint answers their petition, they will sacrifice an animal in his or her honor and share the food with the poor or with other devotees of the saint. Saint veneration is pervasive, and it is more important in the Horn of Africa than on the Swahili coast, but less significant in mainland Tanzania or Kenya.